This is an outstanding Overview of the Work of Evolutionary Biology and Precursory Moral behaviors. The Contention is thought provoking and supported by Natural Selection favoring Evolutionary Shaped Cooperative Behaviors among primates and surely our hunting and gathering ancestors. The tendency is towards solidarity within Small Groups and not larger mass groups. This would explain why we have the phenomenon in humans of “In group” opposing “Out groups.” It shows Trans primate species parallels to a base human moral core behavior. Behaviors shaped for cohesive Group Survival which would increase the individual’s chances for survival. It is not everyone for themselves necessarily in survival of the fittest.
This Paper’s Implications
- Why Utilitarianism is probably an idealistic but unachievable Goal. We have evolved to help others as our ancestors of hunters and gatherers must have acted towards others “morally”.
In a Hunter Gatherer Scenario Bonding occurs in a close, very tight, related clan of members. Hence is makes evolutionary sense that sharing, reciprocity, and altruism would be greater towards those others in the small group or clan. In other words, it is selective and favored behavior and not broad spectrum altruism towards the mass population at large.
Is this not how we humans act towards family, more generously to our “own?” Also do we not tend to be less generous to another whom we do not know, nor may never meet? Would you tend to give generously to a hungry relative, and perhaps not give the same – if anything- to a third world charity group trying to help people who are truly starving.
- Why War is probably an unavoidable aspect of human existence
- How base moral actions can be shared because they are based on emotions and Not reason. As opposed to higher moral beliefs which seem to be more though based- which vary from culture to culture.
- Why altruism, reciprocity, sharing, consolation, and punishment for breaking group rules exists.